From the end of the nineteenth century, especially in Germany, protectionism has thus clearly nourished the xenophobic nationalism that ravaged Europe between 1914 and 1945. But the examples of Thiers, List and Carey show that protectionism was initially the result of intellectual exchanges among “dominated” nations, directed against the dominant power of the British Empire, rather than the expression of a thirst for nationalist domination. These examples also suggest that protectionism was often the economic aspect of an egalitarian liberalism of the left or the centre left, which put the citizen above the consumer. Contrary to the beliefs of many of their respective supporters, in our time as in the nineteenth century, the struggle between free trade and protectionism is not a conflict between good and evil. Tariff barriers do not mechanically lead to war any more than free trade guarantees peace, as is shown by the commercial treaty between France and Prussia in 1862, which did not prevent the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Tariffs are no more and no less than taxes on imports, which – like all taxes – have both adverse and positive effects on wealth creation. As for their political significance and their economic consequences, these have varied considerably throughout history."